In this study, plasmonic nanostructures were examined to enhance the light harvesting of organic thin-film solar cells (OSCs) by multiple surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomena originating from the grating-coupled configuration with a Blu-ray Disc recordable (BD-R)-imprinted aluminum (Al) grating structure and the incorporation of a series of silver nanodisks (Ag NDs). The devices with such a configuration maximize the light utilization inside OSCs via light absorption, light scattering, and trapping via multiple surface plasmon resonances. Different types and sizes of metallic nanoparticles (NPs), i.e., gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), Ag nanospheres (Ag NSs), and Ag NDs, were used, which were blended separately in a PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer (HTL). The device structure comprised of grating-imprinted-Al/P3HT:PCBM/Ag ND:PEDOT:PSS/ITO. Results obtained from the J–V curves revealed that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of grating-structured Al/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ITO is 3.16%; this value is ~6% higher than that of a flat substrate. On the other hand, devices with flat Al and incorporated Au NPs, Ag NSs, or Ag NDs in the HTL exhibited PCEs ranging from 3.15% to 3.37%. Furthermore, OSCs with an Al grating substrate were developed by the incorporation of the Ag ND series into the PEDOT:PSS layer. Compared with that of a reference device, the PCEs of the devices increased to 3.32%–3.59% (11%–20% improvement), indicating that the light absorption enhancement at the active layer corresponds to the grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance and localized surface plasmon resonance excitations with strong near-field distributions penetrating into the active layer leading to higher efficiencies and subsequent better current generation.
Enhanced organic solar cell performance: Multiple surface plasmon resonance and incorporation of silver nanodisks into a grating-structure electrode
1. Chen C C, Dou L, Zhu R, Chung C H, Song T B et al. Visibly transparent polymer solar cells produced by solution processing. ACS Nano 6, 7185–7190 (2012).
2. Ou Q D, Li Y Q, Tang J X. Light manipulation in organic photo-voltaics. Adv Sci 3, 1600123 (2016).
3. Atwater H A. Polman A. Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices. Nat Mater 9, 205–213 (2010).
4. Chen J D, Cui C H, Li Y Q, Zhou L, Ou Q D et al. Single‐junction polymer solar cells exceeding 10% power conversion efficiency. Adv Mater 27, 1035–1041 (2015).
5. Yang Y, Mielczarek K, Aryal M, Zakhidov A, Hu W. Nanoim-printed polymer solar cell. ACS Nano 6, 2877–2892 (2012).
6. You J B, Dou L T, Yoshimura K, Kato T, Ohya K et al. A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency. Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
7. Bagher A M. Introduction to organic solar cells. Sustain Energy 2, 85–90 (2014).
8. Vohra V, Kawashima K, Kakara T, Koganezawa T, Osaka I et al. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells employing favourable mo-lecular orientation. Nat Photonic 9, 403–408 (2015).
9. Lu L Y, Luo Z Q, Xu T, Yu L P. Cooperative plasmonic effect of Ag and Au nanoparticles on enhancing performance of polymer solar cells. Nano Lett 13, 59–64 (2013).
10. Yao M N, Shen P, Liu Y, Chen B Y, Guo W B et al. Performance improvement of polymer solar cells by surface-energy-induced dual Plasmon resonance. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8, 6183–6189 (2016).
11. Cai J G, Qi L M. Recent advances in antireflective surfaces based on nanostructure arrays. Mater Horiz 2, 37–53 (2015).
12. Munday J N, Atwater H A. Large integrated absorption en-hancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic grat-ings and antireflection coatings. Nano Lett 11, 2195–2201 (2011).
13. Chen B C, Cheng Y S, Gau C, Lee Y C. Enhanced performance of polymer solar cells with imprinted nanostructures on the active layer. Thin Solid Films 564, 384–389 (2014).
14. Sha W E I, Li X H, Choy W C H. Breaking the space charge limit in organic solar cells by a novel plasmonic-electrical concept. Sci Rep 4, 6236 (2014).
15. Choy W C H, Chan W K, Yuan Y P. Recent advances in transi-tion metal complexes and light-management engineering in or-ganic optoelectronic devices. Adv Mater 26, 5368–5399 (2014).
16. Baba A, Aoki N, Shinbo K, Kato K, Kaneko F. Grating-coupled surface Plasmon enhanced short-circuit current in organic thin-film photovoltaic cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3, 2080–2084 (2011).
17. Lan H B, Ding Y C. Nanoimprint lithography. In Wang M. Lithog-raphy 457–494 (IntechOpen, 2010).
18. Wu H, Yang J L, Cao S L, Huang L L, Chen L H. Ordered organ-ic nanostructures fabricated from anodic alumina oxide tem-plates for organic bulk-heterojunction photovoltaics. Macromol Chem Phys 215, 584–596 (2014).
19. Choi W M, Park O O. A soft-imprint technique for submi-cron-scale patterns using a PDMS mold. Microelectron Eng 73–74, 178–183 (2004).
20. Lee J H, Kim D W, Jang H, Choi J K, Geng J X et al. Enhanced solar-cell efficiency in bulk-heterojunction polymer systems ob-tained by nanoimprinting with commercially available AAO membrane filters. Small 5, 2139–2143 (2009).
21. Aryal M, Buyukserin F, Mielczarek K, Zhao X M, Gao J M et al. Imprinted large-scale high density polymer nanopillars for or-ganic solar cells. J Vac Sci Technol B 26, 2562–2566 (2008).
22. Hu J C, Shirai Y, Han L Y, Wakayama Y. Template method for fabricating interdigitate p-n heterojunction for organic solar cell. Nanoscale Res Lett 7, 469 (2012).
23. Smith A J, Wang C, Guo D N, Sun C, Huang J X. Repurposing Blu-ray movie discs as quasi-random nanoimprinting templates for photon management. Nat Commun 5, 5517 (2014).
24. Nootchanat S, Pangdam A, Ishikawa R, Wongravee K, Shinbo K et al. Grating-coupled surface Plasmon resonance enhanced organic photovoltaic devices induced by Blu-ray disc recordable and Blu-ray disc grating structures. Nanoscale 9, 4963–4971 (2017).
25. Tvingstedt K, Persson N K, Inganäs O, Rahachou A, Zozoulenko I V. Surface Plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovol-taic cells. Appl Phys Lett 91, 113514 (2007).
26. Lu F F, Zhang W D, Huang L G, Liang S H, Mao D et al. Mode evolution and nanofocusing of grating-coupled surface Plasmon polaritons on metallic tip. Opto-Electron Adv 1, 180010 (2018).
27. Liu C H, Hong M H, Cheung H W, Zhang F, Huang Z Q et al. Bimetallic structure fabricated by laser interference lithography for tuning surface Plasmon resonance. Opt Express 16, 10701–10709 (2008).
28. Chomkitichai W, Ninsonti H, Baba A, Phanichphant S, Shinbo K et al. Multiple plasmonic effect on photocurrent generation of metal-loaded titanium dioxide composite/dye films on gold grat-ing surface. Surf Interface Anal 46, 607–612 (2014).
29. Hara K, Lertvachirapaiboon C, Ishikawa R, Ohdaira Y, Shinbo K et al. Inverted organic solar cells enhanced by grating-coupled surface plasmons and waveguide modes. Phys Chem Chem Phys 19, 2791–2796 (2017).
30. Phetsang S, Phengdaam A, Lertvachirapaiboon C, Ishikawa R, Shinbo K et al. Investigation of a gold quantum dot/plasmonic gold nanoparticle system for improvement of organic solar cells. Nanoscale Adv 1, 792–798 (2019).
31. Pangdam A, Nootchanat S, Lertvachirapaiboon C, Ishikawa R, Shinbo K et al. Investigation of gold quantum dot enhanced or-ganic thin film solar cells. Part Part Syst Charact 34, 1700133 (2017).
32. Pangdam A, Nootchanat S, Ishikawa R, Shinbo K, Kato K et al. Effect of urchin-like gold nanoparticles in organic thin-film solar cells. Phys Chem Chem Phys 18, 18500–18506 (2016).
33. Wang D H, Kim D Y, Choi K W, Seo J H, Im S H et al. En-hancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparti-cles. Angew Chem Int Ed 50, 5519–5523 (2011).
34. Wu J L, Chen F C, Hsiao Y S, Chien F C, Chen P L et al. Sur-face plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the perfor-mance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. ACS Nano 5, 959–967 (2011).
35. Yang J, You J B, Chen C C, Hsu W C, Tan H R et al. Plasmonic polymer tandem solar cell. ACS Nano 5, 6210–6217 (2011).
36. Li X H, Choy W C H, Huo L J, Xie F X, Sha W E I et al. Dual plasmonic nanostructures for high performance inverted organic solar cells. Adv Mater 24, 3046–3052 (2012).
37. Millstone J E, Hurst S J, Métraux G S, Cutler J I, Mirkin C A. Colloidal gold and silver triangular nanoprisms. Small 5, 646–664 (2009).
38. Notarianni M, Vernon K, Chou A, Aljada M, Liu J Z et al. Plas-monic effect of gold nanoparticles in organic solar cells. Solar Energy 106, 23–37 (2014).
39. Singh A, Dey A, Das D, Iyer P K. Combined influence of plas-monic metal nanoparticles and dual cathode buffer layers for highly efficient rrP3HT: PCBM-based bulk heterojunction solar cells. J Mater Chem C 5, 6578–6587 (2017).
40. Otieno F, Shumbula N P, Airo M, Mbuso M, Moloto N et al. Im-proved efficiency of organic solar cells using Au NPs incorpo-rated into PEDOT: PSS buffer layer. AIP Adv 7, 085302 (2017).
41. Baek S W, Noh J, Lee C H, Kim B S, Seo M K et al. Plasmonic forward scattering effect in organic solar cells: a powerful optical engineering method. Sci Rep 3, 1726 (2013).
42. Pastoriza-Santos I, Liz-Marzán L M. Colloidal silver nanoplates. State of the art and future challenges. J Mater Chem 18, 1724–1737 (2008).
43. Parnklang T, Lertvachirapaiboon C, Pienpinijtham P, Wongravee K, Thammacharoen C et al. H2O2-triggered shape transfor-mation of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms with controllable longitudinal LSPR wavelengths. RSC Adv 3, 12886–12894 (2013).
44. Wongravee K, Parnklang T, Pienpinijtham P, Lertvachirapaiboon C, Ozaki Y et al. Chemometric analysis of spectroscopic data on shape evolution of silver nanoparticles induced by hydrogen peroxide. Phys Chem Chem Phys 15, 4183–4189 (2013).
45. Kozanoglu D, Apaydin D H, Cirpan A, Esenturk E N. Power conversion efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by ad-dition of gold nanostars, nanorods, and nanospheres. Org Elec-tron 14, 1720–1727 (2013).
46. Li X H, Ren X G, Xie F X, Zhang Y X, Xu T T et al. High-performance organic solar cells with broadband absorption enhancement and reliable reproducibility enabled by collective plasmonic effects. Adv Opt Mater 3, 1220–1231 (2015).
47. Catchpole K R, Polman A. Plasmonic solar cells. Opt Express 16, 21793–21800 (2008).
48. Catchpole K R, Polman A. Design principles for particle Plasmon enhanced solar cells. Appl Phys Lett 93, 191113 (2008).
49. Gu M, Ouyang Z, Jia B H, Stokes N, Chen X et al. Nanoplas-monics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells. Nanophotonics 1, 235–248 (2012).
50. Chen X, Jia B H, Saha J K, Cai B Y, Stokes N et al. Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles. Nano Lett 12, 2187–2192 (2012).
51. Yang Y G, Feng S L, Li M, Wu Z W, Fang X et al. Structure, optical absorption, and performance of organic solar cells im-proved by gold nanoparticles in buffer layers. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7, 24430–24437 (2015).
52. Nootchanat S, Phengdaam A, Ishikawa R, Lertvachirapaiboon C, Shinbo K et al. Plasmonic-enhanced photocurrent generation of organic photovoltaics induced by 1D grating and 2D crossed grating structures. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 19, 4727–4731 (2019).
53. Lertvachirapaiboon C, Maruyama T, Baba A, Ekgasit S, Shinbo K et al. Optical sensing platform for the colorimetric determina-tion of silver nanoprisms and its application for hydrogen perox-ide and glucose detections using a mobile device camera. Anal Sci 35, 271–276 (2019).
54. Fu Q, Sun W B. Mie theory for light scattering by a spherical particle in an absorbing medium. Appl Opt 40, 1354–1361 (2001).
55. Mattis R L, Baroody Jr A J. Carrier lifetime measurement by the photoconductive decay method. NBS Technical Note 736, 1–52 (1972).
the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K13662 and JP17H03231.
引用本文： Putnin T, Lertvachirapaiboon C, Ishikawa R, Shinbo K, Kato K et al. Enhanced organic solar cell performance: Multiple surface plasmon resonance and incorporation of silver nanodisks into a grating-structure electrode. Opto-Electron Adv 2, 190010 (2019).