Understanding shielding cross-effects is a prerequisite for maximal power-specific nanosecond laser ablation in liquids (LAL). However, discrimination between cavitation bubble (CB), nanoparticle (NP), and shielding, e.g., by the plasma or a transient vapor layer, is challenging. Therefore, CB imaging by shadowgraphy is performed to better understand the plasma and laser beam-NP interaction during LAL. By comparing the fluence-dependent CB volume for ablations performed with 1 ns pulses with reports from the literature, we find larger energy-specific CB volumes for 7 ns-ablation. The increased CB for laser ablation with higher ns pulse durations could be a first explanation of the efficiency decrease reported for these laser systems having higher pulse durations. Consequently, 1 ns-LAL shows superior ablation efficiency. Moreover, a CB cascade occurs when the focal plane is shifted into the liquid. This effect is enhanced when NPs are present in the fluid. Even minute amounts of NPs trapped in a stationary layer decrease the laser energy significantly, even under liquid flow. However, this local concentration in the sticking film has so far not been considered. It presents an essential obstacle in high-yield LAL, shielding already the second laser pulse that arrives and presenting a source of satellite bubbles. Hence, measures to lower the NP concentration on the target must be investigated in the future.
Plasma and nanoparticle shielding during pulsed laser ablation in liquids cause ablation efficiency decrease
First published at:Jan 27, 2021
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the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for funding within the grants GO 2566/7-1 and GO 2566/8-1.
Get Citation: Dittrich S, Barcikowski S, Gökce B. Plasma and nanoparticle shielding during pulsed laser ablation in liquids cause ablation efficiency decrease. Opto-Electron Adv 4, 200072 (2021).