2. Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Overview: With the rapid development of internet, internet of things, cloud computing and artificial intelligence, human society has entered the era of Big Data. In the face of so much data, how to store it safely, reliably, green and energy-saving, long life and low cost has become an important issue. Traditional optical storage technology has been unable to meet the practical requirements, and it needs to be transformed and upgraded, or even to develop a new generation of storage technology. At present, the storage density of optical storage technology is mainly limited by the size of recording points in the two-dimensional plane. How to break through the shortcomings of the existing storage technology and meet the demand of mass data storage in today's data era has become the current problem. For this reason, the new optical storage technology has become a research hot spot. So far, a variety of prototypes based on optical storage principle have been researched and developed in engineering. Optical storage technology has been continuously improved and is gradually being applied and commercialized. This paper firstly introduces the development history of optical storage technology, and then lists 8 kinds of optical storage technology with industrialization prospect in detail. They are blue light optical storage technology, multi-wavelength and multi-level optical storage technology, dual-beam super-resolution optical storage technology, near-field optical storage technology, holographic storage technology, glass storage technology, fluorescent nanocrystal storage technology and DNA storage technology. Then their principles and development status are introduced and summarized, and their technical characteristics and prospects as Big Data storage media are discussed. Through the introduction and comparison, we hope to find out their development prospects and suitable development direction in the future optical storage industry. Finally, the future development trend of optical storage technology is prospected and a conclusion is drawn. In the future, the research on optical storage technology will mainly focus on two major directions: the engineering of new storage methods and the development of storage medium materials with better performance. At present, the most promising engineering is double beam super-resolution technology and glass storage technology. All kinds of storage technologies aim to improve storage capacity, density, reliability and data transmission rate. Therefore, in the next five to ten years, the development trend of optical storage technology still aims at cloud storage products with super-large capacity, ultra-high efficiency, low cost and wide compatibility. This paper is expected to provide technical reference for the development of optical storage technology in the era of Big Data.